W. W. Chen, L. Balaj, L. M. Liau, M. L. Samuels, S. K. Kotsopoulos, C. A. Maguire, L. Loguidice, H. Soto, M. Garrett, L. D. Zhu, S. Sivaraman, C. Chen, E. T. Wong, B. S. Carter, F. H. Hochberg, X. O. Breakefield, and J. Skog. BEAMing and Droplet Digital PCR Analysis of Mutant IDH1 mRNA in Glioma Patient Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Extracellular Vesicles. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids, 2:e109, Jul 2013. [PubMed Central:\href https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3732870PMC3732870] [DOI:\href https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mtna.2013.2810.1038/mtna.2013.28] [PubMed:\href https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1679121416791214].


Development of biofluid-based molecular diagnostic tests for cancer is an important step towards tumor characterization and real-time monitoring in a minimally invasive fashion. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from tumor cells into body fluids and can provide a powerful platform for tumor biomarkers because they carry tumor proteins and nucleic acids. Detecting rare point mutations in the background of wild-type sequences in biofluids such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains a major challenge. Techniques such as BEAMing (beads, emulsion, amplification, magnetics) PCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) are substantially more sensitive than many other assays for mutant sequence detection. Here, we describe a novel approach that combines biofluid EV RNA and BEAMing RT-PCR (EV-BEAMing), as well droplet digital PCR to interrogate mutations from glioma tumors. EVs from CSF of patients with glioma were shown to contain mutant IDH1 transcripts, and we were able to reliably detect and quantify mutant and wild-type IDH1 RNA transcripts in CSF of patients with gliomas. EV-BEAMing and EV-ddPCR represent a valuable new strategy for cancer diagnostics, which can be applied to a variety of biofluids and neoplasms.Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e109; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.28; published online 23 July 2013.