F. H. Hochberg, N. A. Atai, D. Gonda, M. S. Hughes, B. Mawejje, L. Balaj, and R. S. Carter.
Glioma diagnostics and biomarkers: an ongoing challenge in the field of medicine and science.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn, 14(4):439–452, May 2014.
[PubMed Central:\href https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451266PMC5451266] [DOI:\href https://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14737159.2014.90520210.1586/14737159.2014.905202] [PubMed:\href https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1679121416791214].
Glioma is the most common brain tumor. For the more aggressive form, glioblastoma, standard treatment includes surgical resection, irradiation with adjuvant temozolomide and, on recurrence, experimental chemotherapy. However, the survival of patients remains poor. There is a critical need for minimally invasive biomarkers for diagnosis and as measures of response to therapeutic interventions. Glioma shed extracellular vesicles (EVs), which invade the surrounding tissue and circulate within both the cerebrospinal fluid and the systemic circulation. These tumor-derived EVs and their content serve as an attractive source of biomarkers. In this review, we discuss the current state of the art of biomarkers for glioma with emphasis on their EV derivation.