A. Yekula, A. Yekula, K. Muralidharan, K. Kang, B. S. Carter, and L. Balaj. Extracellular Vesicles in Glioblastoma Tumor Microenvironment. Front Immunol, 10:3137, 2019. [PubMed Central:\href https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990128PMC6990128] [DOI:\href https://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.0313710.3389/fimmu.2019.03137] [PubMed:\href https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2334996223349962].
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Abstract

Glioblastomas (GBM) are highly aggressive primary brain tumors. Complex and dynamic tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a crucial role in the sustained growth, proliferation, and invasion of GBM. Several means of intercellular communication have been documented between glioma cells and the TME, including growth factors, cytokines, chemokines as well as extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs carry functional genomic and proteomic cargo from their parental cells and deliver that information to surrounding and distant recipient cells to modulate their behavior. EVs are emerging as crucial mediators of establishment and maintenance of the tumor by modulating the TME into a tumor promoting system. Herein we review recent literature in the context of GBM TME and the means by which EVs modulate tumor proliferation, reprogram metabolic activity, induce angiogenesis, escape immune surveillance, acquire drug resistance and undergo invasion. Understanding the multifaceted roles of EVs in the niche of GBM TME will provide invaluable insights into understanding the biology of GBM and provide functional insights into the dynamic EV-mediated intercellular communication during gliomagenesis, creating new opportunities for GBM diagnostics and therapeutics.